Absolute Disqualification: A person is disqualified from holding a driver’s licence for life. They are able to apply for removal of the disqualification after 2 years.
Accused: A person charged with a criminal offence.
Acquit/Acquittal: A finding that a person is not guilty of a criminal offence
Adjourn / Adjournment: To put something off to another time e.g. if a Court case cannot proceed when it comes before the Court, it may be adjourned to a later date.
Affidavit: A written statement made by person to be used in a court. A person who makes an affidavit must swear on oath that the contents of the affidavit are true or make an affirmation that they are true.
Affirmation: A declaration by a person that evidence which they give in Court, or an affidavit they make is true. A person makes an affirmation if they do not wish to swear an oath.
Appeal / Appeal Period / Notice of Appeal: A procedure where a court decision is reviewed by a higher Court. All persons convicted of a criminal offence (before or after a trial) have the right to appeal against their conviction or sentence. There must be valid grounds of appeal or the higher court will not take the case. If a person wishes to appeal against their conviction or sentence, they must file the required form referred to as a ‘Notice of Appeal’ with the higher court within one calendar month (28 days) from the date of their conviction (‘The Appeal Period’).
Applicant: A person who applies to the Court to make an order.
Arrest: The act of seizing someone to take them into custody to be charged with a criminal offence or to be brought before a Court. An arrested person must remain in police custody until they receive bail or until a Court deals with their charges.
A police officer can arrest someone who they catch breaking the law; or reasonably suspect has broken the law or is about to break the law. The arrest must be reasonably necessary for reasons including:
– stopping the person from breaking more laws;
– to find out who the person is;
– due to the seriousness of the offence;
– to ensure the person does not run away; and
– to gather or preserve evidence.
An arrest does not usually need a warrant and a person does not have a choice of going with the police if they are under arrest. The police can use as much force as is reasonably necessary to carry out an arrest. A person can be charged with resisting arrest as long as the arrest was lawful.
A person under arrest has a number of rights, including:
– The right to know that they are under arrest and for what kind of offence;
– The right to contact a friend, relative or lawyer;
– The right to be taken to Court as soon as ‘reasonably practicable’; and
– The right to ask the police for bail if the person is not brought straight to court.
Assault: The act of applying force of any kind to another person without their consent. It can include a threat, if the person making the threat has the actual or apparent ability to carry it out. The offence of assault is separated into different categories in our Criminal Code depending on the seriousness of the assault and level of injury caused to the victim (e.g. common assault, assault occasioning bodily harm, and assault occasioning grievous bodily harm).
Analysis’s Certificate: A certificate prepared by the prosecution in drug matters outlining the type of drug and the amount alleged.
Alcohol Ignition Interlock: A breath testing device that drivers are required to have fitted to their car if they have been convicted of a high range drinking driving offence or two drink driving offences within 5 years. The device requires the driver to record a zero blood alcohol concentration to operate the vehicle. Drivers must install the device in order to drive again once they have served the disqualification period imposed by the Court for the drink driving offence. The device must be installed for at least one year. If the driver chooses not to install the device they will not be able to drive for a further two years in addition to the disqualification period imposed by the Court.
Australian Federal Police (AFP): The Police Force established by the Commonwealth Government to deal with crimes under Commonwealth Law.
Bail: The temporary release of a defendant from custody whilst awaiting finalisation of their criminal charges. If a defendant is released on bail they will need to sign a bail undertaking which is essentially a promise that they will appear back before the Court when required. The ‘Bail Undertaking’ may have specific ‘Bail Conditions’ requiring the defendant to reside at a particular address, report to a police station and/or not have any contact with the complainant and other witnesses. If a defendant fails to comply with the conditions of their bail they can be charged with an offence referred to as ‘Breach of Bail’.
Bailiff: A court officer who assists in court proceedings, serves court documents and carries out court orders e.g. warrants to sell property.
Balance of Probabilities: The standard of proof in civil cases. For something to be proven to be true it must be more probable than not. This is a lesser standard than the standard of proof in criminal matters which is ‘beyond a reasonable doubt’.
Barrister (Barrister-at-Law): A member of one of the two different classes of lawyers. Barristers specialize in courtroom advocacy, drafting legal pleadings and giving expert legal opinions. They can be contrasted with solicitors, the other class of lawyer, who have more direct access with clients and are responsible for the day to day running of legal matters. Barristers are rarely hired by clients directly but instead are retained (or instructed) by solicitors to act on behalf of clients. In criminal law, solicitors will generally engage a barrister to act on behalf of a client for trial proceedings and more serious sentence proceedings.
Bench charge sheet: A sheet of paper which sets out brief details of a charge against a person.
Bench warrant: A warrant issued by a court calling for the immediate arrest of a person so that they can be brought before the court. Usually issued when a person fails to appear in court.
Beyond a reasonable doubt: The standard of proof in criminal matters. It must be proved beyond reasonable doubt that a person has committed an offence before they can be convicted. This is higher than the civil standard of proof which is the ‘balance of probabilities’.
Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC): The percentage of alcohol present in a person’s blood.
Breach Hearing: The Court date that a defendant will be required to attend if the prosecution allege that they have breached the conditions of any sentence imposed on them by the Court. A person may be required to appear before the Court for a breach hearing if they do not comply with the conditions attached to any of the following sentencing orders: community service, probation, or a suspended sentence. At a breach hearing the Court can resentence the defendant if they are satisfied that the breach has been proven.
Break and enter: The unauthorised entry to premises involving the deliberate shifting or removal of obstacles to enter the premises e.g. opening a door, forcing a lock, breaking a window.
Brief of Evidence: The body of evidence relied on by the prosecution in relation to any criminal charge. A brief of evidence usually includes witness statements and any exhibits relied on, such as: documents, photographs, and/or video footage.
Burden of Proof: The obligation to prove that allegations made in court are true by calling evidence to support the allegations. In criminal cases, the prosecutor has the burden of proof and the defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty.
Call Over: A day on which the Court goes through the list of cases waiting to come before the Court and indicates a date on which they might be dealt with.
Callous Disregard: Failing to take any action to assist an injured person (e.g. failing to call an ambulance, or notify anybody of the accident).
Capacity: The person is capable of understanding the nature and effect of decisions about the matter and can freely and voluntarily make decisions about the matter and can communicate decisions in the same way.
Careless Driving: Driving without paying reasonable care. This is a lesser offence than Dangerous Driving.
Child Protection Order: An order made by the Children’s Court when it is believed that a child is in need of protection.
Children’s Court: The Court which deals with juvenile crime and Child Protection Orders.
Closed Court: A Court which in not open to anyone other than those people immediately involved in the matter being heard in Court.
Community Service: Where a person convicted of a criminal offence is required to perform a specific number of hours of work for the community.
Committal (Committal Hearing / Committal Proceedings): A procedure in the Magistrates Court where the court hears evidence in relation to an indictable offence in order to decide whether the matter should be sent to a higher court
Compensation: An amount of money paid to a person who has suffered injury or loss by the person who the law regards as being responsible for that injury or loss. The amount payable depends on the facts of the case.
Complainant: A person who begins a legal prosecution (e.g. a person seeking a Peace & Good Behaviour Order, or a person making a complaint about criminal behaviour towards them).
Complaint: A way to start a criminal prosecution. Usually a complaint is issued by police together with a summons to attend at Court for the complaint to be dealt with.
Concurrent Sentence: Where a person is sentenced to imprisonment for two or more offences, the sentences may be ordered to be served concurrently i.e. at the same time rather than one after the other.
Conduct Money: Conduct money must be given when a subpoena is served or within a reasonable time before the required Court attendance.
Confiscation: An order that a person’s property be taken by the government e.g. proceeds of criminal activity.
Convict: Where a person accused of committing a criminal offence is said by the Court to be guilty of that offence
Conviction: Where a person accused of committing a criminal offence is guilty of that offence and a record of their guilt is recorded on their criminal history sheet.
Correctional Officer: An officer appointed by the Corrective Services Commission to carry out duties relating to community service work and probation.
Corrective Services Commission: The commission which is responsible for all matters regarding corrective services.
Corroboration: Independent evidence which supports the main evidence.
Costs: Costs are often awarded to the person who succeeds in a court action (party/party costs). There may be a difference between the amount to be paid by the losing party and the costs payable to a person’s solicitor (solicitor/own client costs).
Counsel: See Barrister
Court of Appeal: A court which hears appeals from lower courts, usually consisting of three Judges.
Crimes Act: An Act of the Commonwealth Parliament, setting out criminal offences under Commonwealth law.
Criminal Code: An Act of the Queensland Parliament setting out criminal offences under Queensland Law.
Criminal Compensation: An amount of money awarded to a person who has suffered personal injury including physical, emotional harm and pregnancy as a result of a crime.
Criminal Conviction: Where a person accused of committing a criminal offence is guilty of that offence and a record of their guilt is recorded on their criminal history sheet
Criminal History: A record of offences of which a person has been convicted
Cross Examination: Questioning a person in Court about evidence they have given to the court.
Crown: A name sometimes given to government because the Queen is the formal head of government. Often used to refer to the prosecution in criminal matters.
Cumulative Sentence: Where a person is sentenced to imprisonment for two or more offences, the sentences may be ordered to be served one after the other rather than at the same time.
Custody: In criminal law, it refers to being detained, either by police or in prison.
Dangerous Driving: Any behaviour that a competent and careful driver would consider dangerous, taking into account the nature and condition of the vehicle, and where the offence took place.
Dangerous Drug: A drug specified in the schedules of the Drug Misuse Act as a dangerous drug.
Defence: A legal reason why a charge made against a person should not succeed.
Defendant: A person against whom legal action is being taken.
Demerit points: A system where points are given to licence holders for traffic offences until the maximum number of allowable points is reached and the licence is cancelled.
Dependant: A person who may be recognised as having a legal entitlement to be maintained by another person.
Deponent: A person who makes (deposes to) an affidavit.
Detention: A term used to describe where a person is held in custody.
Disqualification of Licence: An order that a person is not entitled to hold a drivers’ licence.
District Court: The Court which deals with most criminal offences that cannot be dealt with in the Magistrates Court and which hears civil disputes involving amounts of more than $50,000 and less than $250,000. It also deals with most appeals from the Magistrates Court.
Domestic Violence: The term used to describe violence which occurs within a family including physical, verbal, emotional, psychological, sexual, financial or social abuse.
Domestic Violence Application: An application made to the Court by or on behalf of an aggrieved spouse for an order to prevent domestic violence.
Domestic Violence Protection Order: An order made by the court which imposes conditions on a person designed to prevent domestic violence e.g. that a person not contact their spouse.
Drink Driving: Driving or being in charge of a motor vehicle when affected by alcohol or drugs.
Drug Court: Program in the Southport, Beenleigh and Ipswich Magistrates courts. An adult who is drug dependent and facing jail because they have committed an offence may be dealt with by the Drug Court.
Drug Offence: An offence against the Drugs Misuse Act.
Duty lawyer: A lawyer appointed by the Legal Aid Office to assist people charged with criminal offences in the Magistrates Court or the Children’s Court who do not have other legal representation.
Drug Diversion: A sentencing option for miner drug offences requiring a person to attend a drug education seminar.
Drugs Misuse Act: An Act of the Queensland Parliament setting out drug offences under Queensland Law.
Election: The action of making a choice at law e.g. choosing to have a criminal matter dealt with in the Magistrates Court or the District Court.
Exhibit: A document or thing put into evidence in Court proceedings or referred to in an affidavit.
Extradition: The process where a person is sent by Court in one state or territory to another to be dealt with for a criminal offence.
Fail to Appear: An offence of not appearing in Court when required to, usually in breach of a bail undertaking.
Failing to Remain at the Scene of an Accident: An offence of not stopping at the scene of an accident in which a person was involved or not reporting the accident to police when this was required by law.
Failure to Provide: An offence of failing to provide a specimen of breath or blood for analysis which is dealt with in a similar manner as if a specimen had been provided and a prohibited level of alcohol found.
Filing: The process whereby documents are accepted by a Court and often this is evidenced by the court stamping its seal on the filed document
Fine: A penalty which requires a person to pay a sum of money within a fixed period of time. Failure to pay may result in further penalties being imposed including imprisonment
Fine Option Order: Where a person can apply to the Court to have the fine converted to a community service order
Fingerprints: Where an impression of the finger, thumb, or toe is taken by placing the digit in ink and then imprinting the print onto paper. This is then kept as a record, and can be destruction if charges are not laid or the person is found not guilty
First Court Date / First Mention Date: The Court date which appears on the summons or bench charge sheet. On this date a person can, depending on the nature of the charge, plead guilty, have the matter adjourned, or ask for a hearing/committal date.
Forensic Analysis: Analysis conducted on electronic devices such as computers and mobile phones to retrieve all data stored on them, including data that has been deleted.
Forensic Order: A Forensic Order is an order made by the Mental Health Court authorising a person to be detained to an authorised mental health service for treatment or care which can be given either as an inpatient or in the community. It may be made after a finding of unsoundness of mind or permanent unfitness for trial and must be made after a finding of temporary unfitness for trial.
Forfeiture: Where, in some criminal matters, property is taken by the government.
Full Hand Up Committal: A committal where there is no cross examination and all evidence is given to the Magistrate in the form of statements.
Good Behaviour Bond: Where a person is required by the Court as part of the whole of a sentence resulting from a criminal conviction to enter into a recognisance for a fixed term for a fixed amount to be of good behaviour.
Grievous Bodily Harm: Any bodily harm of such a nature as to endanger or be likely to endanger life, or to cause or be likely to cause permanent injury to health.
Hardship: To have a disqualification of licence removed, it must be shown that lack of a drivers licence causes financial (e.g. loss of employment) and personal hardship (e.g. need to drive to get medical attention for family members with persistent health problem).
Hearing: Where evidence is heard from all parties involved in the matter and a judgment is made.
Hearsay Evidence: Where a person has not seen or heard the fact to be used as evidence but has been told by another who saw or heard the fact. Often hearsay is not permissible in court, but there are exceptions
High Court: The highest Court in land which hears appeals from the lower Courts.
Identifying Particulars: A person’s fingerprints and photograph. The police can direct a person to attend a police station to provide this information.
Imprisonment: Where a Court imposes a period of time where a person is to be detained as part or the whole of a sentence in a criminal matter.
In Charge of a Vehicle: Where a person is able to put the vehicle in motion, even though it may not be their intention e.g. over the blood alcohol limit and asleep in the front of the car with the car keys in the ignition
Indictable Offence: Serious criminal charge which must be determined in the District or Supreme Court.
Indictment: Formal charge sheet used in the District and Supreme Court outlining the basic details of the offence.
Intensive Corrections Order: Allows people sentenced to a term of imprisonment for one year or less to serve the term of imprisonment in the community subject to requirements of the order.
Intensive Drug Rehabilitation Order: An order made by the Drug Court. Includes conditions that a person must be drug free and not committing offences.
Involuntary Treatment Order (ITO): Authorises involuntary treatment for mental illness.
Judge: The court official who presides in the higher courts and makes decisions about law and about facts in cases where there is no jury, and imposes sentences and awards damages.
Jurisdiction: The extent of the authority of a Court to decide matters brought before it and the geographical limit within which a court order can be enforced.
Jury: A panel of people who decide questions of fact in a Court proceeding. Twelve jurors are used for all criminal trials in higher courts. Juries are not used in the Magistrates or Family Court.
Juvenile Offender: A person under the age of 17 years who commits an offence.
Lawyer: A person who holds a legal qualification and is approved by the Supreme Court as being entitled to practice as either a solicitor or a barrister.
Magistrate: The Court officer who presides in the Magistrates Court and makes all findings about law and fact, imposes sentences and awards damages.
Magistrates Court: The Court where criminal proceedings start and which deals with the less serious offences and sends the more serious offences to a higher Court to be dealt with. Deals with civil claims involving property up to $50,000 and with limited family law matters.
Mandatory Imprisonment: The Court has no option but to impose a jail term as part of a sentence.
Manslaughter: Killing of a person without the element of intention necessary to constitute murder.
Maximum Penalty: The penalty set out at law as the greatest penalty which a Court can impose for a certain offence.
Mental Health Act: An Act of the Queensland Government which regulates the treatment and in some cases the detention of mentally ill people in Queensland
Mental Health Court: Decides if a person charged with an offence was of unsound mind, or unfit for trial or where the charge is murder, was of diminished responsibility.
Mental Health Review Tribunal: Reviews patients receiving involuntary mental health treatment.
Mention: A date when a matter is listed in Court but on which the full hearing of the matter will not take place.
Misdemeanour: A category of offence. It is specified whether an offence is a misdemeanour or a crime in the Criminal Code.
Mitigating Factors: Factors which would lead a Court to impose a lesser sentence on an offender.
Natural Justice: Rules and procedures to ensure fairness which must generally be followed by a person or body which has power to resolve disputes.
Notice to Appear: A notice given to a person requiring them to attend at Court. It is an alternative to arrest or complaint and summons.
Oath: A promise that statements made by a person are true or that the contents of an affidavit are correct made by swearing on the bible. A person who has no religious belief or who objects to making an oath may make an affirmation.
Obstruct Police: To behave in a manner that prevents police officers from carrying out their duties.
Offence: Something which the law prohibits.
Offender: A person who does something which is prohibited by law.
Onus of Proof: The obligation to prove that allegations made in Court are true by calling evidence to support the allegations. In criminal cases, the prosecutor has the burden of proof and the defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty.
Open Court: A Court open to the public at large. Any person may sit in Court and watch the proceedings.
Outline of Argument: A written summary of submissions.
Offender Levy: Fee that all persons must pay if they are convicted of any offence in a Queensland Court ($100 for Magistrates Court and $300 for District and Supreme Court).
Parole: The release of a prisoner before the completion of their imprisonment. Whilst on parole, the person remains under the supervision of Corrective Services. If a person breaches any of the conditions attached to parole they can be brought back to custody to serve the remainder of the period of imprisonment.
Parole Board: The authority that considers and decides a prisoner’s application for release on parole.
Parole Eligibility Date: The date a prisoner is eligible to apply to the Parole Board for release on parole. The Court will set a parole eligibility date for sentences greater than 3 years.
Parole Release Date: The date a prisoner will be released on parole. The Court can fix a parole release date for a sentence of 3 years or less.
Particulars: Details of a charge which are necessary to inform the defendant of the case they are facing.
Peace & Good Behaviour Order: An order made by the Magistrates Court that a person be of good behaviour and keep the peace towards another.
Penalties & Sentences Act: The Act of Parliament which sets out the principles for sentencing offenders and the sentencing options.
Plea of Guilty: A statement by an alleged offender that they have committed the offence with which they are charged and wish to be sentenced.
Plea of Not Guilty: A statement by an alleged offender that they do not admit to having committed the offence with which they are charged and wish to proceed to trial.
Police Prosecutor: The police officer responsible for appearing in the Magistrates Court and prosecuting miner criminal charges.
Pre sentence Report: A report to assist the Court in deciding what sentence to impose on a person convicted of an offence. Often completed by a psychiatrist, a psychologist, or a Corrective Services Officer.
Pre-trial Hearing: A hearing before a Judge to decide issues of law prior to a trial before a jury. Often used to argue the admissibility of evidence.
Pre-recording of Evidence (Pre-record): The process of recording the evidence of a child witness in a criminal matter prior to the trial so that the admissibility of their evidence can be carefully considered before the jury hears it.
Prima facie case: A case which on its face is sufficient to put an accused person on trial.
Probation: A person is released after conviction on the basis that they are subject to the directions of a Correctional Services Offer and other conditions e.g. reporting, undertaking counseling etc.
Process server: A person who serves Court documents by handing them to the person concerned.
Prosecution: The bringing of a Court action against a person.
Prosecutor: The lawyer representing the state who is responsible for presenting the case against the accused.
Protection Order: An order made for the protection of a person, usually refers to a Domestic Violence Order, but can also refer to an order by the Court that a person’s affairs be managed by the Public Trustee.
Provocation: A defence to some violent offences because a person cannot be held fully responsible for their actions because they have reasonably lost self control due to another person’s actions.
Queensland Law Society (QLS): The body which represents solicitors, deals with some complaints about solicitors and regulates professional conduct. Can provide a list of all solicitors in Queensland and referrals to individual solicitors.
QP9: The name given to the initial document completed by the investigating police officer which sets out the prosecution allegations in relation to a criminal charge.
Reference: A character reference (also referred to as a personal reference) is a letter written by someone who knows the defendant and can describe their character, personal attributes and abilities. A work reference is a letter written by the defendant’s past or current employer to detail their position, employment responsibilities and performance. Both types of references are often tendered in Court at sentence proceedings.
Registry: That part of the court where all documents are filed and administrative enquires can be made.
Regulatory Offence: An offence under the Regulatory Offences Act. Includes shoplifting, leaving a restaurant/hotel without paying and damage to property.
Rehabilitation Period: The period after which a person is not obliged to disclose some criminal convictions. This is generally 5 years for summary offences and 10 years for indictable offences.
Remand: The period of time before a criminal charge is finally dealt with by the Court.
Restitution: Money paid to compensate for loss suffered by a person.
Record of Interview: The recorded questioning of a suspect or witness by police in relation to a criminal offence for the purpose of using their answers as evidence.
Schedule 1 drugs: Drugs set out in Schedule 1 of the Drugs Misuse Act which attract more severe penalties because of their dangerous nature e.g. heroin and cocaine.
Schedule 2 drugs: Drugs set out in Schedule 2 of the Drugs Misuse Act which attract less severe penalties e.g. marijuana, amphetamines.
Search warrant: A document which enables police to search premises and/or vehicles and/or persons and to seize things found which may be used as evidence.
Seizure: The taking of items, usually by police of items found in a search which are to be used as evidence of an offence
Self defence: A person is entitled to use reasonable force to prevent an assault.
Sentence: The penalty for committing an offence.
Service: The delivery of Court papers to a person.
Simple Offence: A less serious offence, under legislation other than the Criminal Code.
Solicitor: A lawyer who advises clients and represents them in legal matters. A solicitor may engage a barrister for Court work or for specialist advice on behalf of the client.
State Penalties and Enforcement Register (SPER): The department responsible for the enforcement and collection of fines.
Special Leave to Appeal: A person who wishes to appeal to the High Court must apply for special leave to do so.
Stalking: A form of harassment designed to intimidate, torment and cause fear in another person.
Street Offences: The name given to a range of less serious offences committed in public.
Strict Liability: Liability which arises regardless of intention or fault of a person.
Subpoena: A document which requires a person to attend a higher Court to give evidence or produce documents.
Summarily: In the Magistrates Court.
Summary Offences: Less serious offences which must be heard in the Magistrates Court.
Summary Trial: A trial in the Magistrates Court
Summons: A document which requires a person to attend a Magistrates Court to give evidence or produce documents.
Supreme Court: The Court which deals with the most serious offences, e.g. murder, and which deals with civil claims of amounts exceeding $250,000.
Surety: A person who puts up a sum of money to guarantee that either themselves or another person will appear in Court when next required. If the person does not appear, the money is forfeited.
Suspended Sentence: Where a term of imprisonment is imposed, but a person does not go to jail providing they do not commit another offence for a specified period of time.
Suspension: A notice that a person may not drive under their licence for a period of time.
Swearing: The making of an oath.
Temporary Protection Order: An order made by the Court which imposes conditions on a person designed to prevent domestic violence e.g. that a person not contact their spouse. The order is in force until a final decision is made by the Magistrate.
Traffic Act: An Act of Parliament which regulates traffic including the issuing of licences to drive and the registration of vehicles.
Traffic History: A sheet which sets out all of the traffic offences committed by a person.
Traffic Offence: A breaching of a traffic rule or regulation.
Trespass: Entering on to or remaining on land without the consent of the owner or lawful occupier.
Trial: A hearing in Court when all evidence is heard and a final decision is made.
Trial Date: The date on which a trial is due to take place.
Trust Account: An account into which moneys which are held on trust are deposited. Used by solicitors to deposit money which a client provides for conducting a case until the money is needed.
Victim Impact Statement: A statement presented to the Court which outlines the effect of a crime upon the victim, their family or friends.
Victim of Crime: A person who has a crime committed against them.
Voir dire: A procedure within a trial in the absence of the jury to decide whether certain evidence should be allowed to be put before the jury. Also referred to as a pre-trial hearing.
Warrant: An official document which gives the police or other authorised person power which they may not otherwise have to arrest, search, seize property, sell property.
Watch House: The part of the police station where people who have been charged with an offence are held until they appear in court or are granted bail.
Without Prejudice: “Without prejudice” is used in legal negotiations (e.g. for a motor vehicle accident, an offer can be made to pay without admitting fault for the accident). If the negotiations fail, a person will not be prejudiced or compromised by concessions or offers made in negotiations.
Witness: A person who is present when something occurs or who gives evidence of something they have observed or heard or of something in which they have recognised expertise.
Witness Statement: A witness’s written version of events.
Witness Expenses: Money paid to a witness to compensate them for having to take the time to appear in Court.
Work Licence: Allows a person convicted of a drink driving offence to drive for employment purposes. Also known as provisional, restrictive or day licence.
Wrongful Arrest: The arrest of a person when there is no legal authority to do so.